Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on Thursday conducted checks at the launch pad of Chandrayaan 2 in Sriharikota. "Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLVMKIII) carrying Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft is undergoing launch checks at the launch pad in Sriharikota. The launch is scheduled at 2:51 am on July 15," ISRO said. The historic Chandrayaan 2 mission will target a completely unexplored section of the Moon that is, its “South Polar region - Aitken Basin.”
It is to be noted that the mission is being considered as a challenge since no space agency has ever explored the South Polar Region of the Moon.
Chandrayaan 2 has three elements including the Rover, the Lander and the Orbiter. As soon as the spacecraft will land on the moon, the lander will separate from the Orbiter and then perform a series of complex manoeuvres comprising of tough braking and fine braking. The lander, named Vikram, will land near the Moon’s South Pole on September the 6th, 2019. It will then carry out experiments on Lunar surface for 1 Lunar day. A single lunar day is equal to 14 Earth days. However. Orbiter will continue its mission for a duration of one year.
The far side of the Moon is the hemisphere of the Moon that always faces away from Earth. It has one of the largest craters in the Solar System, the South Pole–Aitken basin. As the craters remain dark, they have higher chances of containing water.
The bottom of the polar craters of remain under shadows permanently because of the low angular tilt of the axis. Hence the temperature at the poles remains frigid, hitting as low as -248 degree Celsius. That makes it among the lowest temperatures in the Solar System. The sunlight strikes at very low angles in the Polar Regions and thus the craters might have never received sunlight, thereby increasing the chances of presence of ice on such surfaces.
The Moon’s South Pole is more interesting as the lunar surface area at the south pole of the Moon that remains in shadow is much larger than that of its north pole. This increases the possibility of the presence of water in permanently shadowed areas around it.