India is going to celebrate its 71st Independence Day on 15 August. The nation has come a long way after gaining independence from the British rule seven decades back. Indians have excelled in every sphere of life be it science, technology and sports and created a mark for themselves in the world arena.
As we feel proud about the glittering achievements and landmark moments that have made our nation into one of the fastest developing economies we are also filled in with a sense of pride and nostalgia when we look back at the invaluable contributions made by our freedom fighters in our national movement pre independence. The freedom movement was a culmination of the untiring toil and bloodshed of eminent political leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawahar Lal Nehru to name a few and revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Chandrasekhar Azad who made the supreme sacrifices all for the noble cause of gaining independence.
The telling contribution of the Subhash Chandra Bose’s Indian National Army dealt as the final blow in the imperialist designs of the British empire. Last but not the least there were many unsung heroes of our freedom movement like Kudiram Bose whose sacrafices shall be remembered till eternity.
Here is a timeline of events which had an important bearing and chartered out the course of the Indian freedom struggle
1857 Mutiny against the British
1885 Indian National Congress is founded by A.O. Hume
1905 Partition of Bengal announced
1906 Muslim League was founded at Decca on 31st December.
1908 Khudiram Bose was executed on 30th April.
1908 Tilak was sentenced to six years on charges of sedition on 22nd July.
1909 Minto-Morley Reforms of Indian Councils Act - 21st May.
1911 Delhi durbar held. Partition of Bengal is cancelled.
1912 New Delhi established as the new capital of India
1912 A Bomb was thrown on Lord Hardinge on his state entry into Delhi on 23rd December.
1914 The Ghadar Party was formed at San Francisco on 1st November
1914 Tilak was released from jail on 16th June.
1914 Outbreak of the 1st World War 4th August
1915 Mahatma Gandhi arrived in India on 9th Jan
1915 Gopal Krishna Gokhale died on 19th February.
1916 Tilak founded Indian Home Rule League with its headquarters at Poona on 28th April.
1916 Annie Besant started another Home Rule League on 25th September.
1917 Mahatma Gandhi launches the Champaran campaign in Bihar to focus attention on the grievances of indigo planters in April
1917 The Secretary of State for India, Montague, declares that the goal of the British government in India is introduction of Responsible Government on 20th August.
1918 Beginning of trade union movement in India.
1919 Rowlatt Bill introduced on Feb 16, 1919.
1919 The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy took place on 13th April in Amritsar.
1919 The House of Commons passes the Montague Chelmsford Reforms or the Government of India Act, 1919 on 5th December.
1920 The Indian National Congress (INC) adopts the Non-Co- operation Resolution in December.
1920-22 Mahatma Gandhi suspends Non-Co- operation Movement on Feb 12 after the violent incidents at Chauri Chaura.
1922 Moplah rebellion on the Malabar coast in August.
1923 Swaraj Party was formed by Motilal Nehru and others on 1st January.
1924 The Communist Party of India starts its activities at Kanpur.
1925 The Kakori Train Conspiracy case in August
1927 The British Prime Minister appoints Simon Commission to suggest future constitutional reforms in India.
1928 Simon Commission arrives in Bombay on Feb 3. An all-India hartal is called. Lala Lajpat Rai assaulted by police at Lahore.
1928 Nehru Report recommends principles for the new Constitution of India. All parties conference considers the Nehru Report, Aug 28- 31, 1928.
1928 Lala Lajpat Rai died on 17th November due to injuries.
1929 All Parties Muslim Conference formulates the 'Fourteen Points' under the leadership of Jinnah on 9th March.
1929 Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwari Dutt throw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly on 8th April.
1929 The Lahore session of the INC adopts the goal of complete
independence (poorna swarajya) for India; Jawaharlal Nehru hoists
the tricolour on the banks of the Ravi at Lahore on 31st December.
1930 First Independence Day observed on 26th January.
1930 The Working Committee of the INC meets at Sabarmati and passes the Civil Disobedience resolution on 14th February.
1930 Mahatma Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience movement with his epic Dandi Mar (Mar 12 to Apr 6). First phase of the Civil
Disobedience movement: Mar 12, 1930 to Mar 5, 1931.
1930 First Round Table Conference begins in London to consider the report of the Simon Commission on 30th November.
1931 On 5th March, the Gandhi lrwin pact was signed and the Civil Disobedience movement was suspended.
1931 Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Rajguru were executed on 23rd March.
1931 Gandhiji returns from London after the deadlock in llnd RTC on
28th December. Launches Civil Disobedience Movement. The INC declared illegal.
1932 Gandhiji was arrested and imprisoned without trial on 4th January.
1932 The Third Round Table Conference begins in London (Nov 17 to Dec 24)
1933 Gandhiji released from prison as he begins fast for self-purification on 9th May. INC suspends Civil Disobedience movement but authorizes Satyagraha by individuals.
1935 The Government of India Act 1935 was passed on 4th August
1940 Lahore session of ihe Muslim League passes the Pakistan Resolution in March
1940 Viceroy Linlithgow announces-August Offer on 10th of August.
1940 Congress Working Committee rejects the 'August Offer' between 18th to the 22nd of August.
1940 Congress launches Individual Satyagraha movement on 17th October.
1941 Subhash Chandra Bose escapes from India on 17 January; arrives in Berlin (Mar 28).
1942 The INC meets in Bombay; adopts 'Quit India' resolution on 7th & 8th August.
1942 Gandhiji and other Congress leaders were arrested on 9th August
1942 Quit India movement begins on 11th of August; the Great Aug Uprising.
1942 Subhash Chandra Bose established the Indian National Army and Azad Hind Fauj on 1st September.
1943 Karachi session of the Muslim League adopts the slogan Divide arc in December.
1944 Wavell calls Simla Conference in a bid to form the Executive Council at Indian political leaders on 25th January.
1946 Mutiny of the Indian naval ratings in Bombay.
1946 Cabinet Mission arrives in New Delhi (Mar 14);British Prime Minister Attlee announces Cabinet Mission ro propose new solution to the Indian deadlock on 15th March; ; issues proposal (May 16).
1946 Jawaharlal Nehru takes over as Congress president on 6th July.
1946 Wavell invites Nehru to form an interim government on 6th August